— Andrea Gibson, from “Bone Burying” (via fables-of-the-reconstruction)
— Andrea Gibson, from “Bone Burying” (via fables-of-the-reconstruction)
— Eduardo Alves, indeferindo. (via blues-dapiedade)
It’s like I’m reading a book… and it’s a book I deeply love. But I’m reading it slowly now. So the words are really far apart and the spaces between the words are almost infinite. I can still feel you… and the words of our story… but it’s in this endless space between the words that I’m finding myself now. It’s a place that’s not of the physical world. It’s where everything else is that I didn’t even know existed. I love you so much. But this is where I am now. And this who I am now. And I need you to let me go. As much as I want to, I can’t live your book any more.
Israel has begun it’s campaign in launching the biggest ground assault on Gaza in more than 5 years.
The people of Gaza have absolutely no chance at this point. Israel will do anything to wipe Gaza off the planet. WE MUST TAKE ACTION. BOOST
The Israeli government has given the military permission to mobilize up to 40,000 additional reservists as it steps up an offensive in the Gaza Strip aimed at eradicating the source of the Palestinian Rocket Fire.
The last time a ground invasion occurred was in 2009 when 4,000 Israeli troops were deployed in Gaza. The death toll added up to 13 Israeli deaths (3 from friendly fire) and 1,417 Palestinian Deaths which included 114 women and 431 children.
This time there are ten times as many troops being deployed. Already casualties from rocket fire are escalating well past precedent; One can only imagine the toll this ground invasion will take on the Palestinian people.
The only way the fighting will end is if Israel agrees to a peace treaty that gives Palestine their land back along the original 1967 borders declared by the United Nations (which still allocates a disproportionately larger amount of land to the Israeli people).
Please signal boost this to spread awareness and pray for the civilians of both countries involved.
“You will realise, that this combination of red-ochre, of green gloomed over by grey, the black streaks surrounding the contours, produce something of the sensation of anguish called ‘rouge-noir’, from which certain of my companions in misfortunes suffer.” ~ Vincent van Gogh to Emile Bernard
The spread of the black death.
Poland, tell us your secret.
Poland is the
If I remember correctly, Poland’s secret is that the jews where being blamed all over europe (as usual) as scapegoats for the black plague. Poland was the only place that accepted Jewish refugees, so pretty much all of them moved there.
Now, one of the major causes of getting the plague was poor hygiene. This proved very effective for the plague because everyone threw their poop into the streets because there were no sewers, and literally no one bathed because it was against their religion. Unless they were jewish, who actually bathed relatively often. When all the jews moved to Poland, they brought bathing with them, and so the plague had little effect there.
Milan survived by quarantining its city and burning down the house of anyone showing early symptoms, with the entire family inside it.
I reblogged this tons of times, but the Milan info is new.
Damn Italy, you scary.
Poland: “Hey, feeling a bit down? Have a quick wash! There, you see? All better”
Milan: “Aw, feeling a bit sick are we? BURN MOTHERFUCKER, BURN!!!!!”
Also, this might have something to do with it: from what I understand, O blood type is uncommonly… common in Poland. Something to do with large families in small villages and a LOT of intermarriage. The black plague was caused by a bacterium that produced, in its waste in the human body, wastes that very closely mimic the “B” marker sugars on red blood cells that keep the body from attacking its own immune system. Anyone who has a B blood type had an immune system that was naturally desensitized to the presence of the bacterium, and therefore was more prone to developing the disease. Anyone who had an O type was doubly lucky because the O blood type means the total absence of ANY markers, A or B, meaning that their bodys’ immune system would react quickly and violently against the invaders, while someone with an A may show symptoms and recover more slowly, while someone with B would have just died. Because O is a recessive blood type, it shows in higher numbers when more people who carry the recessive genes marry other people who also carry the recessive gene. Poland, which has a nearly 700 year history of being conquered by or partnering with every other nation in the surrounding area, was primarily an agricultural country, focused around smaller, farming communities where people were legally tied to, and required to work, “their” land, and so historically never “spread” their genes across a large area. The economy was, and had been, unstable for a very long period of time leading up to the plague, the government had been ineffective and had very little reach in comparison to the armies of the other countries around for a very very long time, and so its people largely remained in small communities where multiple generations of cross-familial inbreeding could have allowed for this more recessive gene to show up more frequently. Thus, there could be a higher percentage of O blood types in any region of the country, guaranteeing less spread of the illness and moving slower when it did manage to travel. Combine this with the fact that there were very few large, urban centers where the disease would thrive, and with the above facts, and you’ve got a lovely recipe for avoiding the plague.
Interestingly enough, as a result from the plague, the entirety of Europe now has a higher percentage of people with O blood type than any other region of the world.
WHY IS THIS ALL SO COOL
When Tumblr teaches you more about the plague than 12 years of school ever did.
Just to throw a nod in, as a medieval historian, this is all credible, and is the leading theory as to the plagues effectiveness at this point. So. Enjoy your new knowledge!
how come we never learned this is school?
Can I just point out that this is untrue: “literally no one bathed because it was against their religion.” It was not against the rules for medieval Christians to bathe! Christianity did not have any ritual washing requirements, so Christians might not have bathed as often, but it was not against their religion. And people did bathe. Medical manuals often discuss baths as being good for your health, so richer people probably bathed a decent amount. When you don’t have running water and have to cart in your own bath water, bathing is a pain. Naturally, people won’t do it as much unless you have a reason to (but rich people who can make other people cart in their water will bathe more often). Not having a reason to bathe often is very different from being told not to bathe at all.
Some medieval moralists were against bathing in public bathhouses because they felt it might lead to sin. There were some church regulations against excessive public bathing and mixed-sex bathing, but those were based on a fear of sexual sin rather than disapproval of cleanliness. This is a pretty good website for some info and references to other books. As the site notes, this is a somewhat fraught topic among historians, although it would actually seem that it is fraught because we have been taught for so long that medieval people were filthy that we have a hard time accepting evidence to the contrary.
This is a good quote from the site linked above: “Like the nonsensical idea that spices were used to disguise the taste of rotten meat, the idea that bathing was forbidden and/or wiped out between the fall of Rome and the Enlightenment has been touted by many gullible writers, including Smithsonian magazine.”*
The idea that a coating of dirt protects you from disease and you should never wash is not medieval. Strangely enough, it is an idea that post-dates the plague. Early modern/ Renaissance doctors sometimes thought bathing opened the pores to disease.
Yes, medieval Jewish people had a higher standard of hygiene, but Christians were not forbidden to wash.
Here’s another fun fact: medieval people did not call this the “Black Death.” They referred to it as the Great Pestilence or Great Plague. This little Wikipedia blurb is actually pretty good.
*Spices were expensive while meat was cheaper. If you could afford spices, you could afford to toss out rotten meat. If you were so poor you had to eat rotten meat or go without meat, you would not be able to afford spices. See Paul Freedman, Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination (2009)
Reblogging for dicksihavestudied's excellent commentary.
(Source: , via bataleur)
Lavoisier is having none of your shit.
Heeeey so fun fact: the woman in that painting is Lavoisier’s wife, Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, who not only acted as Lavoisier’s lab assistant but also translated English and Latin texts into French so he could read them. But she didn’t just translate, she pointed out errors in the chemistry in some of the texts. Her observations of these errors convinced Lavoisier to study combustion, which led to his discovery of oxygen. She was also critical to the publication of Lavoisier’s Elementary Treatise on Chemistry in 1789. She kept strict records of every experiment they conducted together and drew detailed diagrams of all their equipment. She also threw amazing parties and invited all the brightest minds in science so her husband could pick their brains. After Lavoisier was guillotined she secured all of his notebooks and equipment for posterity.
In short: NOBODY KICKS MADAME LAVOISIER OUT OF THE LAB.
Also, a side note: My historian husband-to-be pointed some things out to me about this painting. Notice that Madame Lavoisier is looking at the viewer, and all the light is on her, while Lavoisier himself is physically smaller than her, in shadow, and looking up to her in reverence. This isn’t a candid photograph- all of these choices are deliberate. The painting isn’t of Lavoisier- Madame Lavoisier is meant to be the central subject.
I can just imagine Lavoisier telling all his colleagues that his wife is really the one with all the clever ideas, and them patting him on the back and telling him he’s sweet for saying so.
Rebloggin’ for the fantastic commentary and the edit :)